Today, many adoptees are tracing birth parents through DNA testing.
I did it myself, reuniting with my birth father’s family more than twenty years after he had died.
To get to the truth I used several DNA tests.
You can read my entire true story and get the details of each test in my book...
Here are the tests that are solving adoption mysteries every day.
Autosomal DNA is the DNA that everyone inherits from both parents. There are currently four such tests that analyze this DNA and compare yours to everyone else in the same database. Click the links to learn more about each test.
Each test has different strengths. But each can find blood relatives who share a common ancestor with you from the last five generations or so.
As of 2019, more than twenty million people have done at least one of the four major autosomal DNA tests. If you’re an adoptee, your chances of tracing birth parents through DNA testing are good and getting better.
Most people only test with one of these companies and there is no way to know in advance which test will uncover your closest relative or the person with the most information. You need to "fish in all the ponds."
Fortunately, with new lower prices and some free transfer options, you can get into all four databases for less than $200 total if you follow my recommendations.
As a side benefit, each of these autosomal DNA tests includes an estimated breakdown of your overall ethnic ancestry.
Two of the four autosomal DNA databases accept free data uploads from others.
With that in mind, follow these steps to get the most coverage for the least cost:
1. Get all the information you can from adoptive family members and your non-identifying information. Any clue may prove helpful when tracing birth parents.
2. Begin with the AncestryDNA test, which has the largest database and the most family trees.
3. After you get your results, download your raw Ancestry DNA data and upload it for free into Family Finder at Family Tree DNA. Click "UPLOAD DNA DATA" at the top of the page and choose Autosomal DNA.
4. Transfer your Ancestry DNA data to the MyHeritage database on their Free Upload page.
5. Upload your raw data to GEDmatch.com. This site has many useful advanced tools.
6. Order the 23andMe test. The Ancestry option includes the important DNA Relatives feature. The more expensive Health + Ancestry option also provides some genetic health information. If you have little or no family medical history, you may want the higher cost option.
7. If none of the databases uncover a close enough match to trace birth parents quickly, explore the methodology, tools, and online classes offered through DNAAdoption.com.
8. If you don’t have the time to do that, just wait and keep checking your DNA accounts periodically.
A mystery-solving match may show up at any time.
NOTE: There are other autosomal DNA tests that only focus on ethnicity such as Geno 2.0 and Living DNA. The latter plans to provide DNA matches at some point. So use this link to see if Living DNA offers that yet.
This is the test that I used to learn my birth father’s surname. If you’re a male adoptee, I recommend you take a Y-DNA test in addition to the autosomal tests.
Even if you’re primarily searching for your birth mother, narrowing down the possibilities for your birth father can simplify your search.
This test works because the Y chromosome passes down, relatively unchanged, from father to son, generation after generation.
By checking your Y-DNA against a huge database of other men, you can find cousins who share a common ancestor in your father’s paternal line.
Since men usually pass down their surname to their sons, you may find that a majority of your matches cluster around one particular surname.
That name, most likely, will be the last name of your biological father.
Once you find that name, tracing birth parents becomes easier. You can narrow your search to men of that surname who lived in the time and place of your conception.
I recommend that you order your Y-DNA test from the company with the largest Y-DNA database by far: Family Tree DNA.
According to the company, nearly 40% of adopted men who take this test are discovering their paternal surname in their initial results. For others the chances of uncovering that hidden surname will increase over time.
NOTE: The 37-marker test is often sufficient to identify your likely surname. You only need more markers if you get too many matches and need to narrow down your list.
You can always upgrade from 37 to 67 or 111 markers later. If money is less of an issue and you want to save time, you can test a higher number of markers in the first place.
Whether you use autosomal or Y-DNA testing, you should contact your matches to learn what they know.
What you’re looking for is branches of their families that extend into the same geographic area where you were born.
When tracing birth parents with DNA testing, remember that your Y-DNA matches will definitely connect to your father’s direct paternal line. But your matches from the autosomal tests could connect to you through any branch of your family tree.
Many of the matches who respond to your inquiry will be genealogists with extensive family trees.
While most people are willing to help adoptees with tracing birth parents, you may run into the occasional person who is not sympathetic to your cause.
Therefore, you may want to omit any mention of adoption until you collect the basic information about the other person’s family.
As you get closer to a birth parent, be as discrete as possible. You don't know if that person has told his or her family about the child given up so long ago. Be careful to respect their privacy.
If you don’t uncover useful information right away, don’t be discouraged. Thousands of new people order these DNA tests every week.
It might take awhile to find the close match with key information that's the breakthrough you need. Your presence in the databases is the necessary first step.
If you have the funds and want to outsource the work, check out Legacy Tree Genealogists.
Eventually, some combination of DNA testing and conventional research should lead you to your birth parents or their families.
Then you can confirm your relationship through the autosomal tests.
Simply have a suspected close relative take one of the same autosomal DNA tests that you did.
The subject of the test can be a potential parent, sibling, aunt, uncle, grandparent, or first or second cousin. The results will confirm if and how you are related.
The tests can even distinguish a half sibling from a full sibling.
Both men and women can also take a mitochondrial (mtDNA) test from Family Tree DNA that follows the maternal line. But learning anything about recent relatives from an mtDNA match can be elusive.
That’s partly because the maternal line usually changes surnames every generation. It’s also because mtDNA mutates very slowly. The common ancestors you share with your matches may have lived thousands of years ago.
All this means that mitochondrial testing is the least informative DNA test for tracing birth parents. Unless you have additional funds and are curious about the origins of your maternal line, I suggest you save your money.
Focus on the Y-DNA and autosomal tests described above.